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Thank you for sharing 😄!
Wow, thanks, Annette! That's incredibly helpful both for this question and in general! Vielen Dank!
The best explanation I have come across is below.
• A determiner is any der-word (der/das/die, dieser, jener etc.), or any ein-word with an ending (eine, einen, einem, keine, keines, meine, seine, ihre, unsere etc.,BUT NOT ein, kein, mein, sein, ihr, unser, euer).
• If there is a determiner preceding the adjective, the adjective will end in -e or -en("weak endings"), according to the following table:
M N F Pl
Nominative -e -e -e -en
Accusative -en -e -e -en
Dative -en -en -en -en
Genitive -en -en -en -en
• If there is no determiner preceding the adjective, the adjective will take (roughly) the same ending that der/das/die would have had if it had preceded the noun ("strong endings"). This amounts to the following table of endings:
endings"). This amounts to the following table of endings:
M N F Pl
Nominative -er (der) -es (das) -e (die) -e (die)
Accusative -en (den) -es (das) -e (die) -e (die)
Dative -em (dem) -em (dem)-er (der) -en (den)
Genitive -en (des) -en (des) -er (der) -er (der)
o If there is more than one adjective preceding a noun, they will all take the same ending.
o If the adjective does not precede the noun, it takes no ending!
o Ein-word endings are not the same as adjective endings! Click here to review the ein-word endings.
o There are a few special cases:
Viel and wenig take no adjective endings in the singular when they are not preceded by a determiner (which they usually aren't).They take regular adjective endings in the plural.
Hoch drops the "c" and adjectives ending in -el or -er drop their final "e" when they take adjective endings.
Some adjectives never take endings, e.g. prima [=great], lila [=purple],rosa [=pink], orange, beige
I'm a bit confused. Why is it "Haben Sie ein glückliches NEUES Jahr" but "Die besten Wünsche für das NEUE Jahr"? I realize the usage/case is a bit different, but Jahr is neuter, so I don't understand how it can ever be "neue". If anything, I could MAYBE wrap my mind around "für das neuem Jahr" but that doesn't seem right either. Can someone please enlighten me? :-(